“Educational Status of Tribals of Jammu and Kashmir: A Case Study of Gujjars and Bakarwalls in District Pulwama”

Mohmmad Younus Wani, Rather Tajamul Islam


Gujjar and Bakarwals are two nomadic tribes of Jammu and Kashmir who have been given ScheduledTribe (ST) status due to their migratory and backward nature. The gujjars are primarily nomads who move fromplains to the higher altitudes with their cattles as part of their annual season journeys with their livestock. The literacy rate of Gujjar and Bakkarwals is quite low. There are a number of educational provisions for migratory Gujjar-Bakkarwal populations in the form of stationary and permanent government schools at different places all over the state. But at the summer locations where the good numbers of nomadic children are available who move there with their parents, the educational facilities are again very less. For the education of the children of the nomadic populations of Gujjar and Bakkarwals, ‘Seasonal Educational Schools’ have been set up where the teachers do not accompany the nomadic children but continue to remain at the temporary camps of the nomads and provide education to those children who are at the higher reaches with their families and cattle for better pastures. In Jammu & Kashmir the overall literacy rate of the Scheduled tribes as per the census 2001 is 3.7percent which is much lower than the national average of 47.1percent aggregated for all S.Ts. Though various efforts have been made by the government for the development of education among tribal communities but much more still needs to do. In this paper an attempt has been made to explore the existing educational status of two prominent tribal communities of Jammu and Kashmir- Gujjars and Bakarwals.

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