Physico Chemical Analysis of Surface Water Resource in Somavathi River Basin, Ananthapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India

U.Imran Basha, U. Suresh, G. Veeraswamy, S. Ramanaiah


The present study deals with surface water quality of Somavathi river basin Area. Samples were collected from river Somavathi river basin area. The collected samples were analysed in Sri Venkateswara University, Department of Geology, and geochemistry laboratory. The parameters were pH, Conductivity, Sodium, Potasium, Total dissolved solids, Hardness, Fluoride, Nitrate, chlorides. It is to evaluate the water quality of Somavathi River by using Canadian Council of Ministers of Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) method, as the river has been subjected to enormous contamination in recent times. Stream water samples from higher order streams in all quadrants were collected from 11places. The water samples data plotted on piper diagram and  indicates that the sample no.W1,W2, W3, W4, W5, W7, W8 and W9 falls under Ca-HCO3 category indicating temporary hardness. Sample no. W6 falls under mixed Ca-Mg-Cl category were rich in Alkali carbonates. The most important factors to determine the suitability of water use in agriculture were PH, salinity, relative proportion of sodium to calcium and magnesium, and the relative percentage of bicarbonate to calcium and magnesium. The quality of irrigation water has been judged by studying the respective graphical representations, which is functional for display purposes and for emphasizing similarities and differences. The dominant ions such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, carbonate, bicarbonate, sulphate and chloride in a water sample can be represented in several ways.The most abundant ions found in natural waters are HCO3-, C1-, Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, SO42- (HCO3, SO4 & CI - anions) Na+, K+, Ca2+ & Mg2+  - Cations).

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