An Analysis of Structural Changes in the Indian Banking Sector

Archana Fulwari


Banking reforms were introduced in India along with the adoption of reform measures for the Indian economy in 1991. These reforms were aimed at creating an enabling environment for banks, strengthening them and improving their institutional and legal framework. Some of the highlights of these reforms are greater operational autonomy to banks, adoption of prudential norms, liberalization of FDI norms in the banking sector, and easing of entry of private sector banks. The impact of these measures is manifested in functional and regional expansion of banking services, changing ownership structure, increased level of competition, greater efforts to improve efficiency in operations, increased adoption of technology in the provision of banking services, and so on. In this context, this paper undertakes a study of the trends, progress and structural changes in the banking sector in India in the post reforms period. The structural changes are captured by examining ownership type of banks, share of bank groups in total assets of the banking sector, growth in deposits and credit, and changes in competitive scenario among the various bank groups.

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