The Government of India Act- 1935: An Overview

Rajesh Kumar


It is a well known fact that the British Government formed many rules and acts to govern India. But Congress was not satisfied with most of them. When the British Government made Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms (1919, the Congress called them inadequate, unsatisfactory and disappointing in every way and urged to establish a full responsible government in accordance with the principle of self-determination as soon as possible.  But all the efforts were failed.  Nevertheless, to recognize the failure of the Reforms of 1919, the British Government appointed the Simon Commission in November 1927.  It had to enquire into the working of the system of government, growth of education and the development of representative institutions in British India.  But no Indian was included in it and consequently, the Commission was opposed everywhere. After that the British Viceroy announced to convene Three Round Table Conferences in London.  No representative of the Congress reached in First Round Table Conference.  But Gandhi ji as the representative of the Congress took part in the Second Round Table Conference from 1st September to 1st December 1931 in London. Next to it, after the Third Round Table Conference (17 Nov. to 24 Dec. 1932) a ‘White Paper’ was issued in March 1933, which gave details of the working basis of the new Constitution of India. In Feb. 1935 a bill was introduced in House of Commons by the Secretary of the State for India, and it was known as the Government of India Act, 1935. 

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